Indications For Using Metformin

Metformin is an oral medication used for blood sugar management, especially in patients with type-2 diabetes. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas in your body. Insulin helps with shifting the glucose in the blood into the cells of body tissues. This helps with regulating the blood sugar levels and providing nutrition to the cells of body tissues. Type-2 diabetes is a condition in which your body becomes resistant to the action insulin. Resistance to action of insulin hormone leads to poor shifting of glucose in the blood into the cells of body tissues. This leads to poor regulation of blood sugar levels with higher blood sugar numbers and poor nutrition supply to the cells of body tissues. Reduced nutrition supply to body tissues can contribute to diabetes symptoms, such as, feeling very tired, confusion, and blurred vision. This nurse teaching on indications for using metformin covers clinical uses for which metformin can be prescribed. Home health nurses can use this patient education guide to instruct both patient and caregiver on indications for using Metformin.

Below is the list of indications for using Metformin:

Type 2 diabetes:  

  1. Insulin is a hormone that helps with shifting the glucose in the blood into the cells of body tissues. This helps with regulating the blood sugar levels and providing nutrition to the cells of body tissues. Type-2 diabetes is a condition in which your body becomes resistant to the action insulin. Resistance to action of insulin hormone leads to poor shifting of glucose in the blood into the cells of body tissues. This leads to poor regulation of blood sugar levels with higher blood sugar numbers and poor nutrition supply to the cells of body tissues. Reduced nutrition supply to body tissues can contribute to diabetes symptoms, such as, feeling very tired, confusion, and blurred vision.
  2. Metformin mainly helps with increasing the sensitivity and decreasing the resistance of body cells for action of insulin. Increased sensitivity and reduced resistance for insulin leads to increased uptake of glucose by cells from the blood. Increased glucose uptake from blood contributes to lowered blood sugar levels. Also, by reducing synthesis of glucose from proteins and fats and by reducing absorption of glucose from the diet into the blood, metformin contributes to improved blood sugar control in individuals with type 2 diabetes.

 Type 1 diabetes

  1. Type-1 diabetes is a condition in which your immune system destroys the insulin producing cells in pancreas. This results in reduced or no insulin production by the body. Reduced or lack of insulin hormone leads to poor shifting of glucose in the blood into the cells of body tissues. This leads to poor regulation of blood sugar levels with higher blood sugar numbers and poor nutrition supply to the cells of body tissues. Reduced nutrition supply to body tissues can contribute to diabetes symptoms, such as, feeling very tired, confusion, and blurred vision.
  2. Metformin helps type 1 diabetic individuals, especially those with some insulin production. Metformin helps by increasing the sensitivity and decreasing the resistance of body cells for action of insulin. Increased sensitivity and reduced resistance for insulin results in improved utilization of insulin available and leads to increased uptake of glucose by cells from the blood. Increased glucose uptake from blood contributes to lowered blood sugar levels. Also, by reducing synthesis of glucose from proteins and fats and by reducing absorption of glucose from the diet into the blood, metformin contributes to improved blood sugar control in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Lowered blood sugars reduce demand for more insulin production and so, helps individuals with type 1 diabetes.

Prediabetes

  1. Prediabetes is a condition when your blood sugar levels are higher than normal, but not high enough to establish the diagnosis of diabetes. Poorly managed prediabetes carries the risk of turning into diabetes over a period of time. Reduced action of insulin hormone in individuals with prediabetes leads to poor shifting of glucose in the blood into the cells of body tissues. This leads to poor regulation of blood sugar levels with higher blood sugar numbers and poor nutrition supply to the cells of body tissues. Reduced nutrition supply to body tissues can contribute to diabetes symptoms, such as, feeling very tired, confusion, and blurred vision.
  2. Metformin mainly helps with increasing the sensitivity and decreasing the resistance of body cells for action of insulin. Increased action and utilization of insulin in individuals with prediabetes leads to increased uptake of glucose by cells from the blood. Increased glucose uptake from blood contributes to lowered blood sugar levels. Lowered blood sugars reduce demand for more insulin production and thus reduces exposure of body cells to high insulin levels. This can contribute to reduced risk for conversion of prediabetes to diabetes.

 Gestational diabetes

  1. Gestational diabetes is a condition of poor blood sugar control that pregnant women develop. Placenta in pregnant women produces certain hormones that block or reduce the action of insulin. Reduced action of insulin hormone in individuals with gestational diabetes leads to poor shifting of glucose in the blood into the cells of body tissues. This leads to poor regulation of blood sugar levels with higher blood sugar numbers and poor nutrition supply to the cells of body tissues. Gestational diabetes can resolve once the pregnancy is over, but it can raise the risk of the individual turning type 2 diabetic later in life.
  2. Metformin mainly helps with increasing the sensitivity and decreasing the resistance of body cells for action of insulin. Increased action and utilization of insulin in individuals with gestational diabetes leads to increased uptake of glucose by cells from the blood. Increased glucose uptake from blood contributes to lowered blood sugar levels. Lowered blood sugars reduce demand for more insulin production and thus reduces exposure of body cells to high insulin levels.

 Polycystic ovarian syndrome

  1. Polycystic ovarian syndrome is a hormonal disorder in women of reproductive age group. Women with PCOS can present with one or more features of the conditions, such as, infrequent or prolonged menstrual periods, abnormally increased menstrual bleeding, weight gain/obesity, excess male sex hormone (androgen) levels. The ovaries in women with PCOS may develop numerous small collections of fluid and fail to release eggs at regular timeframe. The exact cause of PCOS is not clear but has a strong association with increased insulin levels in the blood and increased insulin resistance. Increased insulin levels can lead to increased androgen levels, thus contributing to anovulation and infertility in women. Increased androgen levels in women with PCOS can result in cardiovascular complications later in life.
  2. Metformin mainly helps with increasing the sensitivity and decreasing the resistance of body cells for action of insulin. Increased action and utilization of insulin in women with PCOS leads to increased insulin consumption and increased uptake of glucose by cells from the blood. Increased glucose uptake from blood contributes to lowered blood sugar levels. Improved blood sugar control can help with preventing excess weight gain in women with PCOS. Lowered blood sugars reduce demand for more insulin production and thus reduces the risk for elevated insulin levels in the body. Increased insulin consumption and reduced blood insulin levels can help reduce androgen production in women with PCOS, which can help with regulating the ovulation cycles and improve fertility.
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