Signs and Symptoms of Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD)
Nurse educated the patient and caregiver on signs and symptoms of polycystic kidney disease as follows:
- UTIs: Patients with multiple cysts of the kidney frequently present with UTIs. Enlarged cysts in the kidneys can compress onto the urinary tubules and result in obstruction to the urine flow and retention of urine in the kidney. Retained urine is always a risk factor for development of UTI.
- Anemia: Erythropoietin produced by healthy kidneys is needed to stimulate the production of fresh red blood cells. Individuals with polycystic kidney disease have compromised kidney function and thus, production of erythropoietin is compromised which results in anemia.
- Renal stones: Individuals with cysts in the kidney with obstruction to urine flow are also at increased risk to form kidney stones.
- Reduced overall metabolism: In individuals with involvement of liver and pancreas, production of enzymes and hormones could be affected, thus compromising the overall body metabolism.
- Pain: Excessive growth of the cysts can result in intense abdominal, back and flank pain.
- High blood pressure: Progressive renal failure leads to excessive fluid retention in the body, resulting in elevated blood pressure and hypertensive emergencies.
- Edema: Excessive fluid retention in individuals with polycystic kidney disease, secondary to progressive renal failure, can result in diffuse edema.
- Confusion: Excessive retention of waste products in individuals with polycystic kidney disease, secondary to progressive renal failure, can result in episodes of disorientation and confusion.
- Shortness of breath: Excess fluid retention in the body can result in overall bloating sensation and abdominal fullness. This gradually contributes towards difficulty breathing and shortness of breath.
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